I made this guide because a great deal of information I have collated exists in multiple areas across the internet and this wiki. That said, this is not an exhaustive guide of everything in EVE; that's what the wiki is for. This is simply to provide some direction for newer players from the perspective of a new player. I will try to include as much information as I can and I aim to update this file periodically as I learn more.
I strongly suggest logging off in space (in a safe spot of course). Your motivation to get out there and do something will be much higher if you're already floating in space rather than being safely tucked away in a station.
Exploration's about the only thing here that I have a decent amount of experience in before joining TEST. About a year or so of wormhole exploration with Signal Cartel before taught a fair amount.
If you want to explore, I would recommend getting a hold of a Tech I frigate. Tech II frigates are good once you know what you're doing but as always, only fly what you can afford to lose. As an aside, take a look at the section above the one linked entitled EWAR because that is in all likelihood where you'll begin when flying with fleets.
I would also suggest trying out some exploration in w-space. Losing a cheaper ship there won't sting as much as a T2 but you'll still learn the basics of finding a safe, spamming the d scan and isolating signatures. Additionally, you cannot look at local to see who is or is not there. Wormhole space of course is different to nullsec in that it's less populated and there are arguments to be made for its ease in certain areas but learning how to do explo in as many parts of EVE as you can will stand you in good stead anyway.
There are corp bookmarks which you should be using to get to perches and gates quickly and safely. But you should also be keeping your own bookmarks too just in case there isn't anything there. Organising bookmarks is largely down to personal preference. I would recommend something like SAFE_K and SAFE_WH (if you go there occasionally) folders. Each time you make a safe, put it into the respective folder, and order by closest jumps. Set expiry date to 'Never'. That way, with the relevant folder open, you will always see your current system's safe spots if you have visited before.
As for how to make a safe spot, there is a comprehensive guide to this here.
Each screen will look different according to preferences.
The following do not quite neatly fit elsewhere.
When you're in k space, I found what was useful was knowing where I need to go, and who had blown up before me.
Wormholes can seem scary in some ways but they're not all that bad once you get used to it.